Lab & Extended-laboratory Studies

Sequential testing programmes with non-target arthropods are designed to demonstrate the inherent toxicity (or lack of it) of plant protection products and biocides to key indicator species. Testing normally commences with laboratory studies using the mandatory species (for Europe) of Aphidius rhopalosiphi and Typhlodromus pyri. Mambo-Tox has extensive experience with:

  • Laboratory studies using an inert test substrate (glass or quartz sand). These are typically of a rate-response design, to determine the median lethal rate (LR50) for a test item, for inclusion in Hazard Quotient calculations. Bioassays are carried out in accordance with the latest European testing guidelines.

  • 'Extended laboratory' studies using a natural test substrate (most commonly seedling barley, excised bean and apple leaves, or standard natural soils). These studies are typically run to experimental designs adapted from those used in laboratory tests, except where alternative formal testing guidelines already exist.

  • Aged-residue studies, the aim of which is to determine the decline in activity of harmful treatments applied to plants growing outdoors or in the glasshouse. We are able to grow plants outdoors for extended periods at our field station, but offering them protection from rainfall where this is required to ensure 'worst-case conditions'.


Non-Target Arthropods

Non-Target Arthropods

Lab & Extended
Laboratory Studies

Semi-field & Field Studies

Honeybees and Bumblebees

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